A typical 19th century visit card from the 19th century. The other line is horizontal or synchronic. These cards are a powerful way to expose the culture of the time. By it, examines the relationship to the contents that is the object of study to the ideas being expressed in different branches or elements of a culture simultaneously" ( Schorske, 1979 ). They show that the way of dating was much more formal in the past than now. Therefore, we must examine each production of culture within the context of the development of its genre discipline, field, or genre and in the relation to the intellectual or aesthetic productions as well as the practices of culture that are contemporaneous to the production. They reveal that males generally were the ones to initiate romantic relationships (though it wasn’t always the case!).

This leads to the second definition of culture. They also reveal that the people of that period had a certain sense of humor. It is based upon the significance that symbolic anthropology provides to the concept particularly Geertz: "The culture concept that I am a part of [. cheap..] is a tradition-based pattern of meanings that are embodied by symbols.

They also provide a clear definition of what was considered shocking and what wasn’t. It is a set of ancestral beliefs that are expressed in symbolic form through which people communicate, maintain and expand their understanding about life and their attitudes" ( Geertz, 1973 ). These cards reveal the norms of society regarding sexuality and gender during the 19th century. This is, in turn, the entire language and the actions of symbolic meaning of a group that constitute its culture. Exhibit B: Ancient Greek Pottery. For historians, from there their attention shifts to collective expressions in which the cultural system is portrayed in a way that is wildly chaotic such as rituals of violence and rituals of passages carnivalesque celebrations, etc. ( Davis, 1975 ; Darnton, 1984 ). Let’s imagine you’re an archeologist, and you find an ancient collection of Greek pottery.

The issue that different approaches attempt to address in the present is the paradoxical articulation of a distinction that is the reason why every society, using different ways, separate from a specific field of pleasures and experiences and subordinated those that make intellectual and aesthetic inventions feasible and understandable by locating it in the world of social relations and the system of symbolic representation specific to a particular time and a location. A lot of Greek pottery was decorated with art work in the form of images or paintings. Plurality of practices, common questions. The imagery could be related to mythology or agriculture, sports leisure, or other aspects of the society. Based on historiographical tradition and cultural heritage, the past has favored various objects, fields and techniques. Through studying this pottery, you may be able to gain a better understanding of aspects of the old Greek culture.

The task of identifying it is a daunting task and a lot of times futile since it could result in repetition of the analyses presented in the many articles in this Encyclopedia. It is possible to come to an opinion regarding Greek culture based on the artifacts. Perhaps more important is the identification of the most frequently asked questions the many different approaches. But there’s no assurance that your conclusion will be accurate. The first issue is the necessity of articulating distinct works and the common representations. Archeologists, historians and other experts use the process known as the historical method, or historical methodology, to make sure their theories are accurate. There are a variety of ways to think about this: by focusing on the specifics of every social setting where works are developed and circulate (guilds and courts and academies, as well as the market) and placing them within the context of the texts and practices that they are in negotiation (to utilize a term that is a favorite of ‘New Historicism’), or, employing Elias’s method, knowing how aesthetic conventions relate to the psychological economy and structure of the individual in a particular space and time.

The process is like the scientific method, by forming hypothesis and testing them. Another issue, which is popularly discussed, is the relationship between learned and popular culture. For instance historians would form an idea about the ancient Greek culture , based on pottery, and then the historian would examine that hypothesis by verifying it with other sources. The methods of interpreting these two cultures can be addressed by employing two major models of interpretation and description. Ancient Greek pottery was often adorned with images depicting different aspects of Greek culture.

The first, which aims to eliminate any form of ethnocentrism in culture, considers the popular arts as a cohesive and distinct symbolical system that is organized in accordance with the unreducible logic of a well-read culture. The Political pamphlet of The American Revolution. The second, which is concerned with remembering the existence of relations of dominance and inequalities in the world of social relations, views popular culture in terms of its deprivation and limitations in comparison to the dominant culture. Thomas Paine was an influential English-born American philosopher who wrote an influential pamphlet on politics called Common Sense in 1776. So, on one side, popular culture is seen as an independent symbolic systemthat is encased within itself while on the other hand it is defined by its opposition to the legitimacy of culture.

The pamphlet Paine declared for the American Colonies ought to be autonomous of Great Britain; he asserted that this was just common sense. For a long period, historians shifted between these two views. The author said that ”common sense” was the best way to think. Then, work was conducted on literature or religion was viewed as specifically popular, and the creation of an opposition that was repeated over time, between the glorious era of a free and vibrant popular culture, and the era of censorship and restrictions that make it unpopular and stifle it. The pamphlet was a massive success with American colonists and helped them to establish in their heads that independence is the right option to pursue.

The distinctions that were so obvious are not recognized as a given in the present, and we are forced to examine all the ways that cause those who are dominated to believe that they are of their own denial and the ways in the way that a culture that is dominated manages to preserve a portion from its symbolic coherence. Common The Sense of Thomas Paine sheds much light on the political society that was prevalent in Revolutionary America. This is a valuable lesson in the struggle with the elite the people who were the majority in the past Europe ( Ginzburg, 1966, 1976 ) and also for the relations between the dominant as well as the dominant within the colonial age ( Gruzinski, 1988 ). Looking at the original copy from Common Sense will reveal much about the society that characterized Revolutionary America. The final issue for the study of cultural history, regardless of the methods or objects is the interplay between discourse and practices.

First it will show the kind of words used and spellings that were used at the time. The challenge to ancient beliefs was"linguistic turns" that challenged two fundamental concepts: (1) the language is a system of symbols which, in turn, produce various and uncertain meanings without any intention or personal control. (2) "reality" is not a matter of discourse, but is always constructed through discursive practices ( Baker, 1990 ). Today, we have a different vocabulary that Americans used to have in the 1770s. In opposition to this position many historians who, based on the distinctions made by Foucault between ‘discursive forms as well as nondiscursive system’ (see Foucalt, 1969 ) or by Bourdieu between the ‘practical sense’ and the’scholastic logic’ (see Bourdieu, 1997 ) identified the distinction in the logic that governs practice and the logic that governs discourse and underlined the inseparability between the actuality that was (or was or) and the discourse that is designed to define it, censor it, or even represent it. It also reveals the political climate of that period.

The primary goal of a study that aims to understand the ways that social actors provide significance to their actions and their discourses is, therefore located in the conflict between the creative capacities of communities or individuals and on the other hand constraints and conventions that limit the sphere of their influence depending on the place they are in their dominance relations – the possibilities for individuals to think, communicate and perform. We all are aware of the political environment during that Revolutionary Era: we know the grievances colonists had with Parliament.

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